Neutrophil CD64 and procalcitonin present in the peripheral blood are the most promising biomarkers of neonatal early and late onstage sepsis. However, detection of biomarkers from other body fluids, such as urine, appears to be more feasible, considering the non-invasive sample collection and their accessibility from neonates. Additionally, the urinary biomarkers, which includes cytokines such as IL-8, IL-10 and MCP-1, are elevated during early presumed infection. Thus, development of a PoC for an early detection of infection, which will assess biomarkers from urine, will not only be novel but also provide a beneficial solution to this grave health issue in neonates.
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