Prelacteals: A Source of Infection and Microbiome Disruption?
Alain Labrique of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the U.S. and Meghan Azad of the University of Manitoba in Canada will study the impact of prelacteals - fluids or solids given before breastfeeding is established - on the populations of bacteria in the newborn gut (the microbiome), and how it may affect development. Immediate and exclusive breastfeeding helps maintain healthy growth in infants and protects them against infections, which are also influenced by their gut microbiome. However, in Bangladesh and many other low-resource countries, it is common practice to give newborns ritual foods, like honey or sugar water, before breastfeeding begins, which may impede development. They hypothesize a link between prelacteal use and newborn development mediated by the gut microbiome. To test this, they will use an ongoing population-based study in rural Bangladesh and compare the types and amounts of bacteria in the gut using stool samples of 300 prelacteal-fed and exclusively breastfed infants at 7 days, 28 days and 3 months of life. They will also analyze the composition of the prelacteals being used, including the presence of any toxic contaminants, and of the breastmilk of the mothers, for correlating with any changes in gut microbial populations. The study will enable them to quantify the potentially negative impact of this widespread cultural practice, common to over a billion people across the Gangetic floodplain.